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Samsung LEDs

The LED diodes are produced by Samsung and are the most efficient LED diodes on the market for horticultural applications. These Samsung LED diodes provide white light, which is also called full spectrum. The white light can range from 3000K to 4000K. In addition, LED diodes from Epistar or Osram have been added that give red light to supplement the spectrum and give an extra boost during the flowering phase. This allows the lamp to be used during the entire growth and flowering cycle. The newer models also include IR and UV light to increase the spectrum even further and emphasize the edges of the usefull spectrum.

Advantages of Full Spectrum LED

Horticultural lighting ensures that plants can be cultivated indoors at any time and in any climate. Good spectrum engineering of this lighting leads to faster growing plants with more yield and better quality. Compared to conventional HPS or MH (metal halide) lamps, LED-based lamps are more efficient and in the long term also cost effective due to the high savings in energy costs, longer life and the possibility to determine the spectrum.

Samsung has introduced white and red LEDs for the horticultural lamp series that are best suited for cultivating plants. Initially, mainly blue and red LED lights were used for horticulture because plants are known to absorb red and blue light better. Other wavelengths such as green received less attention. Then Samsung pushed for a different perspective, where different wavelengths are important for the development of the entire plant. This theory is supported by many internal and external experimental studies. After extensive research into the matter, Samsung has decided that a wide white spectrum with support for a red spectrum gives better results and also reduces costs. Samsung's white LED diodes consist of blue, green, yellow and red light and provide optimal lighting that makes plants grow better.

Samsung's new horticultural line consists of industry-leading LED technology with high efficiency. Supplemented with additional 660nm red LED diodes, the entire spectrum is supported and plants grow optimally until the end of the flowering phase.

Effects on space and plants
The use of LED has many advantages as described above. This has consequences for the space itself and causes changes in the plants.
The room itself heats up less quickly compared to regular lamps due to the high efficiency and better heat dissipation. As a result, less intensive heat extraction is required and the plants will need less water. As a result, the use of nutrients also changes as the water consumption decreases. The concentration of nutrients will have to be increased to maintain an equal amount of nutrient absorption by the plants.
All LED grow lights have the diodes arranged in a way that is more spread out than conventional lights. Quantum boards use square area's that are filled with diodes. This means there is no single point where the light emits from. The spider design spreads the diodes out even more and covers the area almost uniformly. Preventing a hot spot that conventional lights cause, leading to a more uniform growth of all plants. 
In addition, LED light has a different effect on the plants, the plants remain shorter with short internodes. 

Addition of Infrared and Ultra-violet LEDs
The newest models of LED fixture offer the addition of additional LEDs to increase the intensity of the lights at the edges of the spectrum. With Infrared (IR) at the far end of the spectrum and Ultra-violet (UV) before the beginning of the visible light spectrum. This is shown by the peaks on the left and right side of the below picture. By increasing the spectrum beyond the visible light, the crop receives additional energy that is needed for optimal growth. 

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